The Republic Building was constructed in 1907 by Allen Paul, a local developer. It was designed by Sanguinet & Staats, a firm of architects in Fort Worth, and characterizes the Chicago School of commercial architecture that was prevalent in the early twentieth century. It was originally named the Paul Building, and the P insignia can still be seen on its facade.
Since its completion The Republic Building has provided offices for many of Houston's most prominent Attorneys and around 1910 it was leased to the United States District Court. Other important tenants include former Texas Govener Ross Sterling, The Galveston-Dallas News, the WMCA, Hoffman Oil Company, Turnbow Oil and Refining Company and many more.
On February 12, 1979 The Republic Building was registered on The National Register of Historic Places. It is historically significant not only because of its age and proximity to Houston's original business district, Old Market Square, but also because of the prominent tenants it has housed.